It causes impaired neurological function, stunted growth, and … cretinism [kre´tĭ-nizm] arrested physical and mental development with dystrophy of bones and soft tissues, due to congenital lack of thyroid gland secretion from hypofunction or absence of the gland. Cretinism is classified into the following two types: It has the highest prevalence and arises due to insufficient dietary iodine intake. In order to understand how this condition manifests, it is paramount to look at how the thyroid glan… Some of the possible causes of cretinism are. Hormone levels in infants are tested. This is classically the result of maternal iodine deficiency, and thankfully is increasingly rare. Diseases and Conditions; Cretinism What is Cretinism? There are several conditions in which there is the impossibility This phenomenon can cause severe retardation of physical and mental growth. In this disorder, there is reduced or absent thyroid function as well as the production of thyroid hormone. During cretinism, this disproportionate rate of growth leads to excessive growth of soft tissue compared to skeletal tissues. The aim of this imaging procedure is to distinguish if the condition is being caused by organification defects or congenital absence. A majority of babies having cretinism will have their thyroid either underdeveloped or absent. If Cretinism is confirmed by tests, hormone replacement therapy is used in the form of oral thyroxine. It is also known as Congenital hypothyroidism, Congenital Iodine-deficiency Syndrome, Salt Deficiency, Syndrome In children aged 2 years or above, the disease is referred to as primary hypothyroidism. Cretinism can lead to complications such as permanently diminutive physical development, abnormally enlarged thyroid gland- a condition known as goiter, and impaired mental abilities. This is an organ that is located within the lower part of the neck and it is butterfly shaped. I know a lot of people think different about this disease, I was surprised too when I found out this. In this disorder, there is reduced or absent thyroid function as well as the production of thyroid hormone. The point to mention here is that this defect does come about as a result of inherited genes. It is typically detected within a week after birth [6]. While it is not known why this kind of birth defect occurs, the thyroid may be seen in a different location. The abnormalities in genes involve the production of enzymes, which are required for the synthesis of thyroid hormone to take place. But if left untreated, patients may have stunted growth to the point of dwarfism. Irreversible changes may occur unless treatment is initiated with the first 6 weeks of life. Cretinism Disease. What does CRETINISM mean? Disease or not? Cretinism can be due to deficiency of iodine in the mother's diet during pregnancy. cretinism disease TSH-HIGHLY SENS. The term 'Cretinism' refers to severe hypothyroidism during birth (deficiency of thyroid hormone) leading to stunted physical and mental growth. In children aged 2 years or above, the disease is referred to as primary hypothyroidism. The first screening and tests can be done a few hours following the birth of the newborn. If this condition is not treated in time, it may result in severe stunted mental and physical growth of a baby. It important for the mother to make sure there is regular visit to the doctor for the child’s height, weight, development as well as general health to be examined. Description. When treated early, the outcome is good. Congenital hypothyroidism, previously known as cretinism, is a severe deficiency of thyroid hormone in newborns. Death is uncommon in patients who receive medical treatment. A child with cretinism is encouraged to have physical activities to help develop their motor skills. Bones and muscles may also degenerate. In adults, cretinism results in mental deterioration, swelling of the skin, loss of water and hair. If left untreated it can cause stunted physical and mental growth. It is a disease of thyroid gland where levels of thyroid hormones in the blood is low (hypothyroidism) since birth. Hypothyroidism is the disease state in humans and in vertebrates caused by insufficient production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland Cretinism i s a form of hypothyroidism found in infants. It is marked by a number of abnormal effects, such as myxedematous (dry) skin, infrequent hair and a protruding abdomen. Cretinism: Cretinism is listed as a type of (or associated with) the following medical conditions in our database: Infant health conditions; Thyroid conditions; Endocrine system conditions. It is believed that the a small number of patients with cretinism have acquired genes, which make the thyroid gland to synthesis less than the required hormones. Cretinism is also known by other names like “ salt deficiency syndrome ” and “ congenital iodine deficiency syndrome ”. Cretinism is a medical condition present at birth wherein there is a decreased or absent thyroid function and thyroid hormone production. Cretinism An endemic disease common in Switzerland and other mountainous countries, characterized by goiter, stinted growth, swelled abdomen, wrinkled skin, wan complexion, vacant and stupid countenance, misshapen cranium, idiocy, and comparative insensibility. Having adequate iodine by a pregnant mother could also help in preventing cretinism occurring in infants. A thyroid scan or technetium is ordered by a doctor to help determine if there are any structural abnormalities involving the thyroid gland. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is thyroid hormone deficiency present at birth. The effects in such phases involve: Newborns with Cretinism can be of normal weight and height. Cretinism athyreotic: Introduction. Having had poor ability in land navigation, you should not immediately put a diagnosis of topographic cretinism. The heel-prick method is used to obtain blood samples for screening. International classification of diseases does not contain the concept of a topographic cretinism, also, the inability to focus is not even a separate diagnosis. Diagnosed with hypothyroidism. Newborns diagnosed and treated within the first few weeks after birth generally have normal intelligence. For example, it may be found on the side of the neck or under the tongue. Cretinism is a congenital disorder meaning it is present at birth. The main hormones secreted by the thyroid gland are mostly thyroxine (T4), and a small amount of triiodothyronine (T3). If there is low levels of thyroxine or T4 and high levels of TSH, these could confirm cretinism or congenital hypothyroidism. That hypothyroidism results in growth retardation, developmental delay and other abnormal features. In some cases, diagnostic tests such as x-rays and ultrasound tests may be used. This illness is one of many that are caused by the thyroid hormones in the body. Some of the treatment options that may be applied are: Thyroxine may be administered to the newborn. Thyroid deficiency may result from: Dietary iodine deficiency during pregnancy [5] is a chief cause in many parts of the world. The developmental growth of the child is also evaluated to determine any signs of delays in learning and speech. What is Cretinism? Cretinism Cretinism is a situation induced by a insufficiency of thyroid hormone at birth and during minority, as a ensue of abnormal evolution of the thyroid gland about 1 in 4000 babies is impacted. If untreated for several months after birth, severe congenital hypothyroidism can lead to growth failure and permanent intellectual disability.Infants born with congenital hypothyroidism may show no effects, or may display mild effects that often go unrecognized as a problem. http://www.theaudiopedia.com What is CRETINISM? The images below show the appearance of Cretinism sufferers. Adult stature ranges from 1 to 1.6 meters without treatment, depending on the severity of the disease, sex and other genetic factors. Cretinism: Related Diseases. This test helps detect the disorder so as to prevent complications such as mental retardation, physical disabilities, or even death of the newborn. The newborns may also receive soy-based formulas as well as iron medication. Actual cretinism is a constitute of hypothyroidism, where need of thyroid gland activity, often expected to an iodine imperfection, stunts growth. Neurological cretinism is characterised by mental retardation, deaf mutism, squint, spastic diplegia, and disorders of stance and gait. However, delayed treatment or no treatment could result in intellectual disability or delayed growth. Gavish is an award-winning freelance medical and health writer and editor with 15 years of experience. Questions and answers on "Cretinism" Pregnant. A child who is suspected to have cretinism requires early diagnosis and treatment. It is one cause of underactive thyroid function at birth, called congenital hypothyroidism, and also referred to as cretinism. Your email address will not be published. (krēt′n-ĭz′əm) n. A congenital condition caused by a deficiency of thyroid hormone during prenatal development and characterized by small stature, intellectual disability, dystrophy of the bones, and a low basal metabolism. The exact prevalence and incidence statistics are unknown. Diagnosis of Cretinism. Learn how your comment data is processed. Congenital iodine deficiency syndrome is a medical condition present at birth marked by impaired physical and mental development, due to insufficient thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism) often caused by insufficient dietary iodine during pregnancy. Life expectancy is average in most Cretinism sufferers. If this condition is not treated in time, it may result in severe stunted mental and physical growth of a baby. In this way, what is … If the pituitary gland does not function properly, this may affect the ability of thyroid gland to produce hormones. The doses should be increased or reduced whenever deemed as appropriate. In order to understand how this condition manifests, it is paramount to look at how the thyroid gland functions. It was used widely as a medical term in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but in recent decades has spread more widely in popular English as a markedly derogatory term for a hopelessly stupid person. Cretinism affects all populations and affects females twice more than males. In this hormone, there is presence of iodine, a substance that helps in the regulation of growth, in brain development, and in regulating body metabolic activity. Cretinism describes a disease that occurs due to severe reduction of thyroid hormone which is congenital (by birth) in nature. Gavish has begun his career as a health and medical writer for daily newspapers. It is mainly due to a deficiency in the amount of hormones that the thyroid hormone produces. Late-treatment or non-treatment causes delayed growth and intellectual disability [7]. Prompt thyroid hormone therapy is essential in order to prevent progressive neurological and motor deterioration. It is for this reason that doctors use screening techniques to determine if there is presence of congenital hypothyroidism or cretinism. Blood tests are conducted occasionally to find out the level of the thyroid hormone. The condition is also referred to as congenital hypothyroidism. Pause in the growth of height is apparent in the first year of life. It is caused by thyroid deficiency in moths during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Cretinism is a congenital disorder meaning it is present at birth. Cretinism is a congenital hypothyroidism, or a underactivity of the thyroid gland at birth. Also, if the mother had a treatment using anti-thyroid drugs, it could also attribute to the condition. Cretinism refers to severe hypothyroidism in an infant or child. Severe thyroid deficiency is noted in 3,000-4,000 infants in countries like North America, Europe, Australia and Japan. Usually, in normal situations, thyroid gland is found at the center of the neck in front, particularly close to the top side of the windpipe. He has been writing for ‘Prime Health Channel’ more than 750 high quality and informative based medical / health articles for both consumer and professional readers. cretinism. When you talk about organificaiton, it is the process that is required to necessitate the synthesis of thyroid hormone. The term cretinwas brought into medical use in the 18th century from an Alpine French dialect prevalent in a region where persons with such a condition were especially common (see below). This form is regarded as a major public health problem in many countries [3]. a congenital disease due to absence or deficiency of normal thyroid secretion, characterized by physical deformity, dwarfism, and mental retardation, and often by goiter. Congenital cretinism with severe hypothyroidism can be identified by antenatal screening test in the first month of … Cretinism is an irreversible brain damage, irreversible mental retardation and severely stunted physical growth in an infant or child due to severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy caused by inadequate thyroid hormone production (congenital hypothyroidism) 1). If the mother is diagnosed with problems of the thyroid, it could contribute to cretinism on the newborn. The face of the newborn looks puffy, dull, and tends to have slow reaction, The tongue appears large, thick and protruded, There is low hair line and possibly dry brittle hair, You may notice that the newborn has larger anterior frontier while the posterior fontanel is persistent, Skin discoloration, usually appearing yellowish- a condition known as jaundice, Decreased muscle tone, commonly known as hypotonia, Heart related problems such as slow pulse or abnormalities of the heart valve, Difficult with breathing – also known as dyspnea, Infrequent bowel movement or constipation. Picture 1: A Child with Cretinism Medication & thyroid problems during pregnancy, Dysfunction of hypothalamus or pituitary gland. It is possible to prevent the brain and the nervous system from being effected by cretinism if the diagnosis is done within two weeks following the birth of the newborn. 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